Industrial Toxicology in Microelectronics: Examples from the Traditional Microworld (GAAS, INP, GAN) to the Modern Nanoworld
(TRT Fr, Palaiseau, France)
This course on industrial and environmental toxicology is dedicated to several target audiences (safety, industrial hygiene, medical, environmental), people attending will have an intermediate (or a basic) experience. A basic knowledge on industrial toxicology is very important and useful when you have to deal with toxic hazards at work or when you have to practice biological monitoring after a possible exposure to toxicants. This half day course will be divided in three different parts. The first one will be an introduction to industrial toxicology : key word definition, ways of penetration, absorption, distribution, biotransformation of toxicants [Phase I and Phase II possible chemical reactions which objectives are the transformation of the initial toxicant in water soluble metabolites], excretion and biometrology , target organ toxicity, major toxic effects… In the second and third parts we will discuss on practical examples from the traditional microworld and also from the emerging nanoworld. The toxicity and biometrology of arsenic and its compounds will be presented. It will be demonstrated how important speciation is. For a more accurate hazard evaluation, speciation has to be taken into account. The toxicity of metals such as gallium and indium currently in use in III-V microelectronics will be reported. Some hazards related to GaAs, InP and GaN epitaxial growth [MOCVD and MBE) will be discussed. A brief overview of some nanotechnology issues (preparation and use of carbon nanotubes, nanowires, particles…) will be proposed as some of these nano-items are under toxicological characterization.